Byoinsen

About Byoinsen

Byoinsen is a hospital ship. There were nineteen army hospital ships that were communicated to the belligerent Powers for being respected and exempt from capture during the Pacific War on the basis of the Hague Convention. IJA asked Ministry of Foreign Affairs to communicate Taiyei Maru too, but lastly it was cancelled. Harubin Maru, Naminoue Maru, Horai Maru, Asakasan Maru and Taihoku Maru were engaged in transporting wounded or sick person by circa 1942. They were also called Byoinsen, but were not the conventional hospital ships. Buenos Aires Maru was attacked by US submarine Runner (SS-275) or US aircrafts in 1943 in spite of the conventional hospital ship. At last she was unfairly sunk by USAAF B-24 on 27 Nov 1943 and about 150 people were killed including Japanese Red Cross Societie's nurses.

Data of Byoinsen

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History of Byoinsen

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Ural Maru

America Maru

Manila Maru

Ryuko Maru

Baikal Maru

Seattle Maru

Hokushin Maru

Midzuho Maru

Siberia Maru

Kohoku Maru

Chicago Maru

Arabia Maru

Fuso Maru

Buenos Aires Maru

Yoshino Maru

Mikasa Maru

Tachibana Maru

Kazuura Maru

Arimasan Maru

(Taiyei Maru)

 

Photo Source:

  1. Ural Maru,Kazuura Maru: Mitsubishi Shipbuiding & Eng. Co., Ltd. Shosen Kenzo no Ayumi. 1959
  2. America Maru: Maru Special No.53. Ushioshobo
  3. Manila Maru: Japan Center for Asian Historical Records (JACAR), Ref. B02032925300
  4. Ryuko Maru: S. Yamada. Nippon Shosentai no Kaiko No.216, Funenokagaku. Sempaku Gijutsu Kyokai Jul 1997
  5. Baikal Maru, Midzuho Maru, Yoshino Maru, Arimasan Maru: K. Ueno. Sempaku 100 nenshi Zempen. Ariake Shobo 1957
  6. Seattle Maru: S. Yamada. Nippon Shosentai no Kaiko No.28, Funenokagaku. Sempaku Gijutsu Kyokai Oct 1981
  7. Hokushin Maru: S. Yamada. Nippon Shosentai no Kaiko No.232, Funenokagaku. Sempaku Gijutsu Kyokai Nov 1998
  8. Siberia Maru: Japanese Passenger Ships in Retrospect No.97, Ships of the World. Kaijinsha Jun 2005
  9. Kohoku Maru: S. Yamada. Nippon Shosentai no Kaiko No.153, Funenokagaku. Sempaku Gijutsu Kyokai Apr 1992
  10. Chicago Maru: S. Yamada. Nippon Shosentai no Kaiko No.79, Funenokagaku. Sempaku Gijutsu Kyokai Feb 1986
  11. Arabia Maru, Fuso Maru, Buenos Aires Maru: JACAR, Ref. B02032926600
  12. Mikasa Maru: Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. Shinzosen shashinshi. 1981
  13. Tachibana Maru: Ships of the World. Kaijinsha Apr 1980
  14. Taiyei Maru: S. Kizu. A 100 Years' History of the Ships of Nippon Yusen Kaisha, Kaijinsha